World History And Anthropology: 20 Proofs: Greeks African DNA The Ancient Greeks were black, world history and anthropology ~~~~

Saturday, 22 February 2014

20 Proofs: Greeks African DNA

The cat is out the bag and it cannot be put back in.  Studies around the world are confirming that the Greeks indeed have Sub-saharan African DNA, only confirming the presence of an Ancient Black Greek Civilization as more than a dozen peer reviewed DNA studies confirm this:

1.
 2001 Feb;57(2):118-27.

HLA genes in Macedonians and the sub-Saharan origin of the Greeks.

Author information

  • 1Department of Immunology and Molecular Biology, H. 12 de Octubre, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain. aarnaiz@eucmax.sim.ucm.es

Abstract

HLA alleles have been determined in individuals from the Republic of Macedonia by DNA typing and sequencing. HLA-A, -B, -DR, -DQ allele frequencies and extended haplotypes have been for the first time determined and the results compared to those of other Mediterraneans, particularly with their neighbouring Greeks. Genetic distances, neighbor-joining dendrograms and correspondence analysis have been performed. The following conclusions have been reached: 1) Macedonians belong to the "older" Mediterranean substratum, like Iberians (including Basques), North Africans, Italians, French, Cretans, Jews, Lebanese, Turks (Anatolians), Armenians and Iranians, 2) Macedonians are not related with geographically close Greeks, who do not belong to the "older" Mediterranenan substratum, 3) Greeks are found to have a substantial relatedness to sub-Saharan (Ethiopian) people, which separate them from other Mediterranean groups. Both Greeks and Ethiopians share quasi-specific DRB1 alleles, such as *0305, *0307, *0411, *0413, *0416, *0417, *0420, *1110, *1112, *1304 and *1310. Genetic distances are closer between Greeks and Ethiopian/sub-Saharan groups than to any other Mediterranean group and finally Greeks cluster with Ethiopians/sub-Saharans in both neighbour joining dendrograms and correspondence analyses. The time period when these relationships might have occurred was ancient but uncertain and might be related to the displacement of Egyptian-Ethiopian people living in pharaonic Egypt.


2.

HLA class I and class II polymorphism in a population from south-eastern Tunisia (Gabes Area).

Author information

  • 1National Blood Transfusion Center, Rue Djebel Lakhdhar-Bab Saadoun, Tunis, Tunisia. hajjej2@yahoo.fr
  • Abstract

    The gene frequencies of HLA class I and class II alleles were investigated in 95 healthy Tunisian individuals from Gabes. Our aim was to compare the genetic relationship between Gabesians and Mediterraneans and sub-Sahara Africans using genetic distances, Neighbour-Joining dendrograms, correspondence and haplotypes analysis, thereby providing additional information about evolutionary history of modern-day Tunisians. Subjects were unrelated and of both genders, and HLA class I and class II genes were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSO) technique. Our data show that south-eastern Tunisians (Gabes area) are related to present-day North Africans (Algerians, Moroccans, Tunisians) and Iberians (Spaniards, Basques), and along with other North Africans, appear to be genetically related to Berbers, an indication that the Arab invasion (7th-11th centuries) of North Africa had minimal contribution on the HLA makeup of North Africans. On the other hand, Iberians including Spaniards and Basques show relatedness to (native Tunisian) Berbers, suggesting that the gene flow of 7th century AD invaders was also low in Iberians. In conclusion, the successive invasions of North Africa in general, and Tunisia in particular, did not modify markedly the genetic makeup of present-day Tunisians. With the exception of Greeks who have a sub-Saharan genetic profile, all Mediterranean populations depict a typical mediterranean substratum.
3.

 2011 Mar;38(2):156-64. doi: 10.3109/03014460.2010.504195. Epub 2010 Jul 29.

HLA class I and class II polymorphisms in Tunisian Berbers.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The HLA polymorphism is a powerful genetic tool to study population origins. By analysing allele frequencies and haplotypes in different populations, it is possible to identify ethnic groups and establish the genetic relationships among them.

AIM:

The Berber (endogenous Tunisians) HLA class I and class II genotypes were analysed and compared with those of Mediterranean and Sub-Saharan African communities using genetic distances, Neighbour-Joining dendrograms, correspondence and haplotype analysis.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS:

One hundred and five unrelated Berbers were typed for HLA class I (A, B) and class II (DRB1, DQB1) gene alleles using reverse dot-blot hybridization.

RESULTS:

High frequencies of A*0201 (24.76%), A*3402 (22.38%) and B*44 (32.85%) alleles were recorded for Berbers, the highest recorded for Mediterranean and North African populations. This study shows a close relatedness of Tunisian Berbers to other Tunisians, North Africans and Iberians.

CONCLUSION:

The apparent relatedness of Tunisian Berbers to present-day (North African) Tunisians, Algerians and Moroccans suggests that the Arab invasion of North Africa (7(th)-11(th) centuries AD) did not significantly impact the genetic makeup of North Africans. Furthermore, Tunisian Berbers appear to be closely related to Iberians (Spaniards and Basques), indicating that the 7(th) century AD gene flow of invaders was low in Iberians and that the main part of their genetic pool came after the Northward Saharan migration, when hyper-arid conditions were established in Sahara (before 6000 BC). Other studied populations belong to the old Mediterranean substratum, which has been present in the area since pre-Neolithic times. This study indicates a higher proportion of Iberian than Arab ancestry in Tunisian Berbers, which is of value in evaluating the evolutionary history of present-day Tunisians. Greeks seem to share genetic HLA features (Chr 6) with Sub-Saharans. The relatedness of Greeks to Sub-Saharans has been confirmed by other studies based on chromosome 7 genetic markers.

4.

Population genetic relationships between Mediterranean populations determined by HLA allele distribution and a historic perspective.

Abstract

HLA genes allele distribution has been studied in Mediterranean and sub-Saharan populations. Their relatedness has been tested by genetic distances, neighbour-joining dendrograms and correspondence analyses. The population genetic relationships have been compared with the history of the classical populations living in the area. A revision of the historic postulates would have to be undertaken, particularly in the cases when genetics and history are overtly discordant. HLA genomics shows that: 1) Greeks share an important part of their genetic pool with sub-Saharan Africans (Ethiopians and west Africans) also supported by Chr 7 Markers. The gene flow from Black Africa to Greece may have occurred in Pharaonic times or when Saharan people emigrated after the present hyperarid conditions were established (5000 years B.C.). 2) Turks (Anatolians) do not significantly differ from other Mediterraneans, indicating that while the Asians Turks carried out an invasion with cultural significance (language), it is not genetically detectable. 3) Kurds and Armenians are genetically very close to Turks and other Middle East populations. 4) There is no HLA genetic trace of the so called Aryan invasion, which has only been defined on doubtful linguistic bases. 5) Iberians, including Basques, are related to north-African Berbers. 6) Present-day Algerian and Moroccan urban and country people show an indistinguishable Berber HLA profile.

5.

HLA genes in Southern Tunisians (Ghannouch area) and their Relationship with other Mediterraneans

  • A. Hajjeja
  • S. HmidaaCorresponding author contact informationE-mail the corresponding author
  • H. Kaabia
  • A. Dridia
  • A. Jridia
  • A. El Gaaledb
  • K. Boukefa
  • Abstract

    South Tunisian HLA gene profile has studied for the first time. HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 and -DQB1 allele frequencies of Ghannouch have been compared with those of neighboring populations, other Mediterraneans and Sub-Saharans. Their relatedness has been tested by genetic distances, Neighbor-Joining dendrograms and correspondence analyses. Our HLA data show that both southern from Ghannouch and northern Tunisians are of a Berber substratum in spite of the successive incursions (particularly, the 7th–8th century A.D. Arab invasion) occurred in Tunisia. It is also the case of other North Africans and Iberians. This present study confirms the relatedness of Greeks to Sub-Saharan populations. This suggests that there was an admixture between the Greeks and Sub-Saharans probably during Pharaonic period or after natural catastrophes (dryness) occurred in Sahara.

6. 

 2008 Jun;12(2):299-304. doi: 10.1089/gte.2007.0120.

VNTR polymorphism of the DRD4 locus in different Pakistani ethnic groups.


The present study was designed to investigate the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) allelic distribution in different Pakistani ethnic groups. DNA samples from nine different ethnic groups of Pakistan were analyzed. Greek and Somali samples were included as representatives of the European and African populations, respectively. Pakistani, Greek, and Somali populations were also compared to the published data on different world populations. The allelic distribution revealed that the four-repeat allele was the most common allele in all the Pakistani ethnic groups as is in different other world populations, followed by the seven- and two-repeat alleles. To study the evolutionary relationship of the Pakistani ethnic groups among themselves and with a few other world populations, multidimensional scaling based on the allelic frequencies of the DRD4 VNTR was obtained. This analysis grouped most of the Pakistani ethnic groups together and closer to the European and Middle Eastern populations, except for the Mohanna from Sindh, who grouped with the African populations. In addition, the Somali and the Greek samples analyzed in this study grouped closer to the previous data obtained on the African and European populations, respectively.



7.
 2001 Sep;62(9):1051-61.

The correlation between languages and genes: the Usko-Mediterranean peoples.

Abstract

The usko-Mediterraneans peoples are defined as ancient and present day populations that have lived in the Mediterranean/Middle-East/Caucasus area and have spoken a Basque related language. The present day existing populations show an HLA genetic relatedness which is more or less close according to geographical distance. The Greek sample is an outlying in all genetic analyses, because Greeks have a significant genetic input from sub-Saharan Ethiopians and Blacks. This probably occurred in Pharaonic times. Present day comparisons between genes and languages show a lack of correlation: Macedonian, Palestinians, Kurds, part of Berbers, Armenians, and Turks belong to the old Mediterranean substratum, but they do not speak a language included in the old Mediterranean Dene-Caucasian group. This is due to an "elite"-imposed culture and language. Other ethnic groups speak an "old Mediterranean language" or "usko-Mediterranean language" modified by Roman Latin (i.e., Spanish, Italians), or by other not fully explained processes (Jews). 



8. 
"The expansion time for the E1b1b1a2 (V13) subclade in Greece is estimated around 4-9kya, somewhat preceding the estimate for the origin of this subclade, which is due to the use of different mutation rate models.  The estimate for expansion on Crete is 3kya, which coincides with an influx of Mycenaean culture from the Greek mainland during the end of the Bronze Age.  The E1b1b1a2 (V13) most closely follows the route proposed for Y-chromosome haplogroup J-M12 that was part of the late Neolithic introduction of farming and agriculture to Europe and the advances of the ensuing Bronze Age."

E1b1b1a. M78

The Northeast Africa-based E1b1b1a subclade is defined by SNP M78.  Somalia, Sudan and Egypt are among the present day countries with very high frequencies (60-90%) of the E1b1b1a M78 subclade.  The STR data also support its origin in this area with a TMRCA estimated at 14-23 kya.  The frequency of this subclade drops dramatically in Sub-Saharan Africa.
The E1b1b1a (M78) subclade of Haplogroup E predominates in Europe wherever Haplogroup E is found.   Since this haplogroup is most frequent in East Africa, it is likely connected to Africa via the Middle East and the Levantine corridor through Egypt.  The exit from Africa is estimated within the Mesolithic era.  The route to Europe continued through Anatolia and used the Balkan Peninsula, e.g. Greece, in the expansion of this subclade to the West.  This movement appears to closely parallel (in place and time) those taken by Y-chromosome Haplogroup J.  Together, Haplogroup J and E are believed to have spread agricultural practices during the Neolithic Era to Europe from the Near and Middle East. 
Given the presence of E1b1b1a/M78 in North Africa, it is likely that the migration north also produced a western trek from Ethiopia or Sudan into this area.  There may have also been backflow of this haplogroup into Africa during the Neolithic, again bringing with it new agricultural techniques into Egypt.  
Note that M78 SNP is the second highest representative in the Balkans (~23%).  There is a moderate geographic structure in that the frequency of E1b1b1a/M78 is higher in the South (Greece, Macedonia, Albania, Serbia) than the North (Croatia, Bosnia).  Low to very low frequencies (<5%) are seen in Iran and Pakistan and these tend to the southern regions of these two countries.  A moderate frequency (6%) has been detected in the Atlantic island group of the Azores (Portugal).
Genebase.com

So there you have it, they have Ethiopian ancestors, cluster with Ethiopians, have ethiopians dna to this day. Even the art looks far more like black people than it does like modern greeks



9.

Frequency and distribution of Haplogroup E in Europe and portions of Asia and Africa:

Figure 9. A map illustrating the frequency and distribution of Haplogroup E in Europe and portions of Asia and Africa.  The portion of the pie charts colored in blue represent the fraction of Haplogroup E among Y-DNA in region.  While Africa displays the highest overall frequencies, the next highest frequencies are found around the Balkan Peninsula, including Greece and Crete.  The frequency of Haplogroup E drops precipitously to the North and East. 
     




10.
Nigeria, west Africa appears the most logical origin of the sickle mutation in Greece evidence from beta S globin gene cluster polymorphisms (1991). It has been conclusively demonstrated that HbS in Greece is mostly haplotype #19 (the one that originated in Benin, Nigeria West Africa). See, Boussiou M, Loukopoulos D, Christakis J, Fessas P.; The origin of the sickle mutation in Greece; evidence from beta S globin gene cluster polymorphisms. Unit for Prenatal Diagnosis, Laikon Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Alas, updated research work has proven beyond doubt that the sickle cell genes proven to exist in southern Europe are exclusively Sickle cell gene Haplotype 19 or the Benin Sickle cell gene from Nigeria.
Y Haplogroup E-M78 and YAP In Black Africans and Greeks
Y Haplogroup E-M78 a derivative of E3B is a signature African gene as confirmed in research studies over the last few years. The high frequency of this haplogroup in Greece suggests the presence of a substantive African population in that region during prehistoric and historical time periods.
A recent paper has detected clades of haplogroups J and E3b that were likely not part of pre-historic migrations into Europe, but rather spread by later historical movements Greeks.
(Semino et al., Am J Hum Genet, 2004) E3b originates from East Africa while there is a high frequency of J-M267 in the East Coast of Africa as well as the Red sea coast of Arabia.
A recent sampling of the Greek population comprised 36 Peloponnesian samples, 5 of which were J-M172(xM12) and 17 of which were E-M78 (R.K., unpublished data).

11.
In spite of the small Peloponnesian sample size, the high E-M78 frequency (47%) observed here is consistent with that (44%) independently found in the same region (Di Giacomo et al. 2003) for the YAP chromosomes harboring microsatellite haplotypes A. (Novelletto, personal communication) (Cruciani et al. 2004).
The study by by Di Giacomo et al. found the following African haplogroups in Greeks: Haplogroup A which is highly specific to West Africa, R1a, DE, and J2*(xDYS413= 18)J*(xJ2). R1* which probably gave rise to R1a is found in Northern Cameroon. DE is found principally among Nigerians and it is suspected that it originated from Nigeria.
12.
High-resolution Y-chromosome haplotyping and particular microsatellite associations reveal … an East Africa homeland for E-M78.Origin. See Ornella Semino, Chiara Magri, et al “Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area”http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=15069642
HLA Genetic Relationship Between Ancient Greeks and Black Africans
HLA genes are reliable markers of past population movement and are still used in laboratories today to establish genetic inter-relationship amongst seemingly diverse peoples.
13. 
HLA genes in Macedonians and the sub-Saharan origin of the Greeks (2001) was a study conducted by Dr. Arniaz and other scholars in a top flying Spanish University. This study uses HLA genes to establish the African dimension of the roots of ancient Greece.
14.
There is a false claim (by those with ideological investments in the topic) on the Internet that this  Arnaiz Greek study has been “retracted” or “refuted.” The study is perfectly valid. Sub-Saharan-specific and quasi-sub-Saharan-specific alleles were definitely detected in the Greek population at the DRB1 locus, and this is not open to question.
It would be useful to discuss the study that was retracted, and the reason why. It is the work titled: “The origin of Palestinians and their genetic relatedness with other Mediterranean populations” (which contained some cross-referenced Greek data in a neighbor-joining dendogram and a correspondence analysis) that was retracted. And it was retracted solely and strictly for political reasons, as this Observer article makes crystal clear:
(Keep in mind we are dealing with the study on the relatedness of Jews and Palestinians at the moment, which was retracted, and not the one on the Greek-Black African relatedness, which was not retracted and remains valid. The two must not be confused.)

15.
“Hb S is common in some areas of the Mediterranean basin, including regions of Italy, Greece, Albania and Turkey (Boletini et al., 1994) (Schiliro et al., 1990). Haplotype analysis shows that the Hb S in these areas originated in Africa. The genes probably moved along ancient trading routes between wealthy kingdoms in western Africa and the trade centers in the Mediterranean basin.” (Harvard University, http://sickle.bwh.harvard.edu/scdmanage.html)
“Usually, people with sickle cell disease outside Africa (e.g., blacks in the United States) or India have mixed haplotypes for their sickle cell genes.” (Harvard University, http://sickle.bwh.harvard.edu/scdmanage.html)

16.The Spread of Malaria to Southern Europe in Antiquity: New Approaches to Old Problems BERT SALLARES, MA; PhD,* ABIGAIL BOUWMAN, MSc, PhD,* and CECILIA ANDERUNG, MSc*
"Haplotype analysis has demonstrated that the sickle-cell trait in Sicily, northern Greece, and western Arabia is in linkage disequilibrium with the Benin haplotype in western central Africa.62This constitutes direct evidence for gene flow linked to human migration from central Africa to Mediterranean Europe in historical times. The 
Failaka individual might have been a descendant of a 
Macedonian soldier from northern Greece with the 
Benin haplotype"

17.
Y Chromosomal lineage E-M78 (sub clade of E3B) according to the AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS:
"In conclusion, high-resolution Y-chromosome haplotyping and particular microsatellite associations reveal regional population differentiations, an East Africa homeland for E-M78, and recent gene-flow episodes consistent with the Neolithic in Europe.In particular, the spatial distributions of J-M172*, J-M267, E-M78, and E-M123 indicate expansions from the Middle East toward Europe"

And of the "CLASSICAL" Greeks? Did they carry East African lineages?

Well lets look at what the AM Journal of Human Genetics said.

Geneticists wanted to test the hypothesis that Greeks colonized parts of Italy starting around 750 B.C.E. They decided that the best way is to test the populations in the relevant regions of Italy for "Greek signature lineages".

What are these lineages? J and E3B (E-M78)


""Southern Italy (Apulia and Calabria) contains sites of the early Neolithic period (Whitehouse 1968), but we know from history that these regions were subsequently colonized by the Greeks (Peloponnesians). To test the relative contribution of Greek colonists versus putative earlier Neolithic settlers, an admixture analysis (Bertorelle and Excoffier 1998) was performed, using E-M78 and J-M172(xM12) as signatures of Greek and Anatolian lineages, respectively.":

Semino et al. (2004) Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area. Am J Hum Genet


The next study deals with Ancient Greek admixture in populations of Pakistan because of Alexander the Great's conquest.

Now what lineage do they use to trace the admixture of ancient Greek soldiers in Pakistan? E3B (also known as E1b1b) which is ultimately of East African origin and coallesces in Europe with the Neolithic.

Three Pakistani populations residing in northern Pakistan, the Burusho, Kalash and Pathan claim descent from Greek soldiers associated with Alexander’s invasion of southwest Asia. Earlier studies have excluded a substantial Greek genetic input into these populations, but left open the question of a smaller contribution. We have now typed 89 binary polymorphisms and 16 multiallelic, short-tandem-repeat (STR) loci mapping to the male-specific portion of the human Y chromosome in 952 males, including 77 Greeks in order to re-investigate this question. In pairwise comparisons between the Greeks and the three Pakistani populations using genetic distance measures sensitive to recent events, the lowest distances were observed between the Greeks and the Pathans.Clade E3b1 lineages, which were frequent in the Greeks but not in Pakistan, were nevertheless observed in two Pathan individuals, one of whom shared a 16 Y-STR haplotype with the Greeks. The worldwide distribution of a shortened (9 Y-STR) version of this haplotype, determined from database information, was concentrated in Macedonia and Greece, suggesting an origin there. Although based on only a few unrelated descendants this provides strong evidence for a European origin for a small proportion of the Pathan Y chromosomes.

Firasat et al. (2006) Y-chromosomal evidence for a limited Greek contribution to the Pathan population of Pakistan. Eur J Hum Genet.


BENIN HBS SICKLE CELL - originates in Benin West Africa and was carried by Neolithic and ancient Greeks.

This migration finds some support in the presence in Mediterranean populations (Sicily, Greece, southern Turkey, etc.; Patrinos et al. 2001; Schiliro et al. 1990) of the Benin sickle cell
haplotype. This haplotype originated in West Africa and is probably associated
with the spread of malaria to southern Europe through an eastern Mediterranean
route (Salares et al. 2004) following the expansion of both human and mosquito
populations brought about by the advent of the Neolithic transition
Cranial Discrete Traits in a Byzantine Population and Eastern Mediterranean Population Movements
Human Biology , Oct 2008 by Ricaut, F X, Waelkens, M


Osteological evidence of Benin Sickle Cell in ancient Greeks, including "Royal graves"

"Throughout this whole area...a manifestation of disease, once called 'osteoporosis symmetrica' occurs in ancient skeletons. It is a porotic hyperostosis of the skulls and other bones.... In the Mediterranean, porotic hyperostosis probably represents thalassemia or sicklemia...."
 "But a steady decrease in thalassemia from first farmers to the 4th c. BC would fit the probabilities expected from increasingly efficient use of farmland and swamp-drainage.... The subsequent rather quick increase would fit the evidence amassed by Jones (1907, 1909) and Stephanos (1884), and their successors, showing that malaria became endemic and then fluctuated somewhat in severity down to modern times."
"From this standpoint it is important to note that in Greece all the adult frequencies of hyperostosis change thus: Mesolithic 40%, Early Neolithic 60%, Late Neolithic-Early Bronze Age 28%, Middle Bronze 13%, Royal Graves 8%, Late Bronze 8%, Early Iron 4%, Hellenistic 10%, Roman 24%, Medieval 12%, Turkish 45%, Romantic 37%."

Angel, J. Lawrence. The People of Lerna: Analysis of a Prehistoric Aegean Population. American School of Classical Studies, Athens, 1971

"We conclude that the beta S gene was introduced to Sicily from North Africa and that the gene flow originated in Central West Africa and traveled north through historically well-defined trans-Saharan commercial routes.
Ragusa et al. (1988) Beta S Gene in Sicily Is in Linkage Disequilibrium with the Benin Haplotype: Implications for Gene Flow. Am J Hematol; 27:139-141

"The consensus is that the gene was introduced into Sicily and Southern Italy from Northern Africa through the trans-Saharan trade routes, or, alternatively, by means of the Greek colonisation...."
Russo-Mancuso et al. (1998) Survey of Sickle Cell Disease in Italy. Haematologica; 83:875-881

As for why this E lineage is relevent, it is because it is the y-dna, male side, so your father father father and this is a haplogroup coming from east africa. So when Greeks are showing between 25-50% E1 dna it means their patrilineal lines are african male regardless of how they look, all of this supports the fact of a black founder population as the founders will usually be male.

Recently, it has been proposed that E3b originated in sub-Saharan Africa and expanded into the Near East and northern Africa at the end of the Pleistocene (Underhill et al. 2001). E3b lineages would have then been introduced from the Near East into southern Europe by immigrant farmers, during the Neolithic expansion (Hammer et al. 1998; Semino et al. 2000; Underhill et al. 2001).

Cruciani et al. Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out Of Africa. Am J Hum Genet. 2004 May; 74(5): 1014–1022

This is relevent because it demonstrates who we are really talking about when we are talking about "middle eastern" migrants into europe. Black people



 18.

Reconstructing ancient mitochondrial DNA links between Africa and Europe.

Abstract

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages of macro-haplogroup L (excluding the derived L3 branches M and N) represent the majority of the typical sub-Saharan mtDNA variability. In Europe, these mtDNAs account for <1% of the total but, when analyzed at the level of control region, they show no signals of having evolved within the European continent, an observation that is compatible with a recent arrival from the African continent. To further evaluate this issue, we analyzed 69 mitochondrial genomes belonging to various L sublineages from a wide range of European populations. Phylogeographic analyses showed that ~65% of the European L lineages most likely arrived in rather recent historical times, including the Romanization period, the Arab conquest of the Iberian Peninsula and Sicily, and during the period of the Atlantic slave trade. However, the 
remaining 35% of L mtDNAs form European-specific 

subclades, revealing that there was gene flow from sub-

Saharan Africa toward Europe as early as 11,000 yr ago.
 

19.
" The E-M35* lineage shows its highest frequency (19.2%) in the Ethiopian Oromo but with a wider distribution range than E-P2*. Indeed, it is also found at high frequency (16.7%) in the Khoisan of South Africa (Underhill et al. ; Cruciani et al. ) (suggesting, once again, their ancient relationship with Ethiopians) and observed in southern Europe (present study). "
"In Europe, this clade is restricted to the southernmost regions, such as Iberia and Sicily, and the absence of microsatellite variation suggests a very recent arrival from North Africa, consistent with previous observations (Bosch et al. ). The frequency pattern and the microsatellite network of E-M2(xM191) (fig. 3) indicate a West African origin followed by expansion, a result that is in agreement with the findings of Cruciani et al. ()."

Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area
 Ornella Semino,1 Chiara Magri,1 Giorgia Benuzzi,1 Alice A. Lin,2 Nadia Al-Zahery,1,4 Vincenza Battaglia,1 Liliana Maccioni,5 Costas Triantaphyllidis,6 Peidong Shen,7 Peter J. Oefner,7 Lev A. Zhivotovsky,8 Roy King,3 Antonio Torroni,1 L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza,2 Peter A. Underhill,2 and A. Silvana Santachiara-Benerecetti1

So there you have it, undeniable evidence from peer reviewed research involving over 100 professors who all agree that there we're migrations from black Africa into black Europe during the ancient period. 

19.
Winters (1983b) makes it clear that the Garamantes founded the Greek cities of Thrace, Minoan Crete and Attica. The Garamantes were also called Carians by the Indo-European Greeks.

The Garamantes or Carians originally lived in the Fezzan. These Garamante were described by the Latin classical writers as black or dark skinned: perusti (Lucan 4.679), furvi (Arnoloius, Adversus Nationes , 6.5) and nigri (Anthologia Latina, 155,no.183).

Although these people of the Heroic age came from diverse origins, the Aryan-Greeks called them Pelasgians. According to the Greeks, the first man was Pelasgus--ancestor of the Pelasgians. The Pelasgians were a combination of different Black tribes called Achaeans, Cadmeans, Leleges, Carians or Garamantes.

The term Pelasgian was applied to all these pre-Hellenic inhabitants of Greece. R.J. Hopper, in The Early Greeks, noted that "indeed the classical Greeks believed in the separate existence of diverse ethnic elements side by side, and thought particularly of the Pelasgians in this connection".

According to tradition, the Pelasgians inhabited Arcadia and many Aegean Islands. These Blacks took their own writing to Greece which was later used by the Aryan-Greeks. According to Herodotus quadrigas or four-horse chariots were introduced to Greeks by the Libyans .

The Aryan-Greeks adopted the language of the Pelasgians and Egyptians. The linguistic evidence shows that there was a differentiation of Greece into East Greek and West Greek. The Black Greeks spoke East Greek (Achaioi or Achaean). West Greek was spoken by the Dorian or Aryan Greeks. The earliest Aryan tribe called Ionians spoke a dialect of East Greek called Aeolic.

Many classical scholars teach the world that the Greek language is entirely Indo-European. This view of Greek is wrong.

Dr. Anna Morpurgo Davies, has made it clear that "less than 40% of the words which have an Indo-European etymology". According to Dr. Davies, 52.2 % of the Greek terms in Chantraine's Dictionnaire Etymologique de la langue Grecque (1968) have an unknown etymology. The mixed nature of the Greek language results from the early settlement of the Aegean by Blacks from Africa.

Some of these words are of African origin. Robert K.G. Temple, in The Sirius Mystery, shows that many of the most common words of the Greek vocabulary are of Egyptian origin. Diop (1991) has also discussed the Egyptian origin for many Greek terms.

GARAMANTES

Some of the first African colonists to arrive in Greece came from Crete. These Cretans were called Garamantes. After the goddess Ker or Car, these people also came to be also known as the Carians. The Carians spoke a Mande languages.


A Pelasgian boat from Thera


These people usually sailed to the Islands in Aegean and the surrounding coast were they established prosperous trading communities.

There is frequent mention of the Garamantes of the Fezzan, in Classical literature of Greece and Rome. The Garamantes were recognized as a Black tribe. They were known to the Greeks and Romans as dark skinned. In Ptolemy (I.8.5.,p.31) a Garamante slave was described as having a body the color of pitch or wholly black.

Graves (1980) and Leo Frobenius linked the Garamante to the ancient empire of Ghana (c.300 BC to A.D. 1100). Graves (1980) claims that the term Garamante is the Greek plural for Garama or Garamas. He said that the present Jarama or Jarma are the descendants of the Garamante; and that the Jarama live near the Niger river.

The Olympian creation myth, as recorded by Pindar in Fragment , and Apollonius Rhodius, makes it clear that the Garamantes early colonized Greece. Their descendants were called Carians. The Carians practiced apiculture. As in Africa the Carians practiced matrilineal descent. According to Herodotus , even up until his time the Carians took the name of their mother.

The classical Carians and Egyptians were very close. Having originated in the Fertile African Crescent they had similar gods and cultural traditions dating back to the Proto-Saharan period.

The Garamantes founded Attica, where they worked the mines at Laureium. Demeter, the goddess of agriculture and fruitfulness, came from the Fezzan (Libya) by way of Crete. It was Demeter who took poppy seeds and figs to Europe.

Apollonius Rhodius (.iv.1310) tells us that the goddess Athene was born beside Lake Triton in Libya. The goddess Athene, was called Neith by the Egyptians and Nia by the Cretans in Linear A writing. This shows that the Garamantes took this god to Europe in addition to Demeter and Amon (=Ammon ,Amma).

By 3000 BC, the Garamantes has spread their influence to Thrace and early Hellenic Greece. Hesiod, who was a Kadmean (i.e., of Egyptian descent), in Works and Days , said that before the Hellenic invasion the Grecian people lived in peace and tranquility and had matriarchal societies. The name Europe comes from Aerope, the daughter of King Catreus, a Cretan. Thucydides observed that:

20.
THE PELASGIANS

The Greeks often called the first inhabitants of Greece Pelasgians. The Greek writers claimed that Pelasgus, the great ancestor of the Pelasgians was the first man. The Pelasgians were a combination of diverse Black tribes which included the Achaeans , Kadmeans, and Leleges. The Garamantes were also often called Pelasgians by some classical writers. Strabo said "that the Pelasgi, as indeed the most ancient nation, were diffused through all Greece, and especially among the Aeolians".

The city of Argo was founded by Phoroneus, the father of Pelasgus, Iasus and Agenor. It was these folks who divided the Peloponnese between them.

Herodotus referred to the Pelasgians as "venerable ancestors". He said that the first Athenians "they were Pelasgi, the later possessing the country now designed Hellas". The Pelasgian founding of Athens is also noted by Plutarch in Theseus 12, and Ovid in Metamorphosis vii.402ff. According to Herodotus vii.91, the Pelasgians also founded Thebes in Europe. Pausanias, noted that "The Arcadians make mention of Pelasgus as the first person who existed in their country. From this king the whole region took the name Pilasgia". Hopper noted that the Pelasgians founded Attica.

The Black immigrants from Canaan were also settled in the Aegean at Argolis. They called themselves the "Sons of Abas". Many of the Melampodes later took part of Argolis away from the Canaanites.

The earliest Greek alphabet was made by the Pelasgians, it was lost and later reintroduced by Kadmus to Boeotia. Another Pelasgian, Evander of Arcadia introduced writing to the Italians. This script was used to make the first fifteen characters of the Latin script according to Pliny and Plutarch

20.
But regarding the Grecian cities and Islands, these Pelasgians happen to be Black. There Ethnicity and Language (if you can call it that) was "Garamante" a Malinke speaking people.
Quote:
Using archaeological evidence and the classical literature C.A. Winters (1983b) explained how the African/Black founders of Grecian civilization originally came from the ancient Sahara. Winters(1983b) makes it clear that these Blacks came to the Aegean in two waves 1) the Garamantes a Malinke speaking people that now live along the Niger river, but formerly lived in the Fezzan region of Libya;
Quote:
These Garamante were described by the Latin classical writers as black or dark skinned: perusti (Lucan 4.679), furvi (Arnoloius, Adversus Nationes , 6.5) and nigri (Anthologia Latina, 155,no.183).
Quote:
The Garamantes were also often called Pelasgians by some classical writers. Strabo said "that the Pelasgi, as indeed the most ancient nation, were diffused through all Greece, and especially among the Aeolians".
Quote:
Winters (1983b) makes it clear that the Garamantes founded the Greek cities of Thrace, Minoan Crete and Attica. The Garamantes were also called Carians by the Indo-European Greeks.
Quote:
According to the Greeks, the first man was Pelasgus--ancestor of the Pelasgians.
Again Pelasgians meaning "Pre- Hellenic" or "Original inhabitants" and in this case, the Authors are only talking about Arcadia and many Aegean Islands
Quote:
The Pelasgians were a combination of different Black tribes called Achaeans, Cadmeans, Leleges, Carians or Garamantes.
Quote:
The Pelasgians founded many cities. The Pelasgian founding of Athens is noted by Plutarch in Theseus 12, and Ovid in Metamorphosis vii, 402 ff. According to Herodotus vii.91, the Pelasgians also founded Thebes. Many of these Athenians may have introduced the Geometric style to Greece during the so-called Dark Ages (1200- 600 BC).
Quote:
As recorded by Pindar in Fragment , and Apollonius Rhodius, makes it clear that the Garamantes early colonized Greece. Their descendants were called Carians. The Carians practiced apiculture. As in Africa the Carians practiced matrilineal descent. According to Herodotus , even up until his time the Carians took the name of their mother.



The Spread of Malaria to Southern Europe in Antiquity: New Approaches to Old Problems


5 comments :

  1. I think you are putting far too much emphasis on allosomes and certain antigenic allele frequencies. Why do I say this? because the > 99.9 of an individual's or a population's genetic ancestry is phylogenic autosomes. I information you present is valid, such as the greeks clustering with east africans on antigenic allele frequencies, however that is far from the entire story from a genetic perspective.

    So, since autosomally the Greeks and Cretans dont even have 5% african heritage, then the allosome:autosome discrepancy is a function of what event or process(es)? I ask simply because you have not touched on the subject, yet you must if you want to present a convincing and clear-cut case with respect to greek origins.

    Cheers!
    D.I.Xianshan

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. The fact that the male lineage particularly in the relevent parts of greece is around 50% African then when you factor in the nearly 2000 years of occupation from foreign forces mostly non-blacks (germanic invasions, slavic expansions, romans, balto-slavic expansion and invasion, and ottoman turks and hunns and so on). It becomes clear this would naturally dilute the gene pool or autosomal dna.

      We know this african dna is coming in the ancient period. And then we can eliminate most of the non-african dna from ancient greece because its coming from the invaders and migrators mostly in the ad period (germanic, slavic, asiatic, etc) so then we are left with only african dna in the ancient period.

      It really isn't necessary to prove that modern Greeks have ANY black dna (although they clearly do) to prove the ancient greeks were black. In fact all the migrations and invasions between its end and 2000 years of colonialism from non-blacks could have wiped out any trace of the african dna but luckily the mixing patterns occured in such a way that it didn't entirely.

      If you read the blog you would have seen where I explained that there was numerous invasions of Greece since the end of its golden era, it was basically colonized by roman, invaded by a series of germanic and slavic invaders you had a few other asians like the huns and mongols and then Ottoman turks came in for 1000 years or so and then Greece become independent in the mid 1800s and has large scale population switches with turkey. Greece lost more than 75% of its population under ottoman turk slavery.

      So to put it in short, the discrepancy comes from invasion.
      ie.
      If your paternal great-great-grand father was black and his nation was receiving heavy germanic and slavic immigration by the millions the statisical odds are he will marry a white germanic or slavic woman. And this is the case in every generation
      Paternal:
      black ggg marries white great-great grand mother
      mulatto gg marries white great grand mother
      quadroon grand father marries white grand mother
      octroon father marries white mother

      That would make the said person a mustefino or 1/16th black "autosomally" but that person would come back allosomally as a E or A or R1 haplogroup from black ancestry. They'd probably look white too or "Mediterranean" . 1/16th isn't that far away from 5%.

      Hence you can see how in just 100 years or 5 generations you could go into a black country and whiten it pretty fast. Now think of what would happen in 2000 years?

      Delete
    2. >>The fact that the male lineage particularly in the relevent parts of greece is around 50% African then when you factor in the nearly 2000 years of occupation from foreign forces mostly non-blacks (germanic invasions, slavic expansions, romans, balto-slavic expansion and invasion, and ottoman turks and hunns and so on). It becomes clear this would naturally dilute the gene pool or autosomal dna.<<

      Ok, lets go piece by piece and see where we go. Lets suppose that it has really happened the way you allege. ~50% black dna currently + 2000 years of intermarriage, plus you must control for countless of the male line killed in warfare and attrition.

      But then you add:

      >>Greece lost more than 75% of its population under ottoman turk slavery.<<

      Now, how do you square the fact that only ~50% of the modern greek male line is of black ancestry, yet claim that > 75% of greece's population was lost to the ottoman period, and prior to that germanics, slavics, etc were "occupying" greece, against which greece had to defend and hence bleeding yet more of its miniscule fraction of the original black greek male clade. Under such circumstances there is no possibility for a ~50% blk cladistic survival. so between the 2000 year marriage to foreign women and total attrition and the assumed high casualty rates associated with resistance to occupiers, and over a 2000 years span, with an additional event of >75% population loss in the ottoman period, then how exactly do we encounter what we find in the african HLA alleles and 50% Y-Chromosomes of african lineage that we find?

      IF you can tackle that demographical and mathematical challenges, and square those figures genetically so that it can actually be possible , I will be ready to answer your next in the list,

      Cheers!

      Delete
    3. “Now, how do you square the fact that only ~50% of the modern greek male line is of black ancestry, yet claim that > 75% of greece's population was lost to the ottoman period, and prior to that germanics, slavics, etc were "occupying" greece, against which greece had to defend and hence bleeding yet more of its miniscule fraction of the original black greek male clade. “
      There is no contradiction there it is a perfectly logical statement on my part.


      “Under such circumstances there is no possibility for a ~50% blk cladistic survival. so between the 2000 year marriage to foreign women and total attrition and the assumed high casualty rates associated with resistance to occupiers, and over a 2000 years span, with an additional event of >75% population loss in the ottoman period, then how exactly do we encounter what we find in the african HLA alleles and 50% Y-Chromosomes of african lineage that we find?”
      I already gave you the math. If you have 100 greeks, 80 with African dna then invasion by turkey and slavery and massacre of 75 people. Why would one expect only the ones with African dna to die? If the attacks were evenly distributed or so you’d get 50% black dna in a modern population. There is nothing illogical about that, it would just be luck at that point of what the dna of the remaining 25 greeks will be. In this case it seemed to be 50% in the south and 35% or so nation wide. So if 12.5 had black ancestry it still works out

      “IF you can tackle that demographical and mathematical challenges, and square those figures genetically so that it can actually be possible , I will be ready to answer your next in the list,”

      Delete
  2. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete

Note: only a member of this blog may post a comment.