World History And Anthropology The Ancient Greeks were black, world history and anthropology ~~~~

Sunday, 30 March 2014

Peer Reviewed study explains the expansion of L3 african haplogroup throughout Africa.... Non black Egyptian theory is officially dead.

The Expansion of mtDNA Haplogroup L3 within and out of Africa

  1. Luísa Pereira*,1,7
  2. Essentially this map demonstrated 30-40k years ago that there was an expansion of the female african haplogroup into Egypt, Libya and Algeria. It then demonstrates how its sister L3 clades went into sudn and central west africa around the same period. It also demonstrates the central african origins of the ancient egyptians. Which is of course something the ancient egyptians believed (that they were of central africa origin). It also lays to rest the non-black ancient north africa theory of white carthagians. It is quiet clear from the evidence the ancient north africans were indeed black and the ancient carthage were black peoples.

"The scan of founder lineage variation (fig. 4C) in North Africa indicates two peaks at 0.6 and at 6.6 ka"

"We performed a founder analysis stipulating three migration times, including a third one of 35.0 ka, based on the ages of U6, L3k and the population increase in the BSP (supplementary fig. S7Supplementary Material online) with results presented in table 1. The biggest slice corresponds to the peak at 6.6 ka, corresponding to one-third of the L3 lineages (table 2), mainly affiliated to haplogroup L3e5, which is largely restricted to Northwest Africa. It dates to 12.4–13.6 ka and so may have begun earlier than 6.6 ka. The other major lineages contributing to the 6.6 ka partition (Central African L3b, L3e1, and L3e2 lineages: founders F17, F28, and F41 in supplementary table S4Supplementary Materialonline), suggest the postglacial period was characterized by gene flow across the Sahel belt (Cerný et al. 2007)"

"The BSP for North Africa also indicates the major rate of increase in the effective population size centered at about 10 ka (supplementary fig. S7,Supplementary Material online; table 1), contemporaneous with Central and Eastern Africa. Since the majority of L3 lineages in the scan had an origin elsewhere, the timing of the growth signal observed in the North African BSP might in fact be describing the demography of the source, with many of the coalescences occurring prior to the dispersal into North Africa. However, an independent analysis of North African U6 (Pereira et al. 2010) indicated growth associated with this haplogroup ∼10 ka."

Friday, 28 February 2014

Is white skin thicker than black skin

Caliper-measured skin thickness is similar in white and black women.

Author information

  • 1Department of Dermatology, Johns Hopkins University.
skin thickness in white (1.41 +/- 0.01 mm) compared with black (1.39 +/- 0.02 mm) women (P =.3)

Well there you have it, white skin is thicker than black skin. 

Sunday, 23 February 2014

READER RESPONSE: Prove the Germanics were from central asia

While I am looking at more examples on the internet it does relate to something I mentioned before. In stealing the black history of Europe, the white people claiming falsely a european history have erased much of their own true central asian history. Hence it is quiet common to find articles where it states "Germanics were in (insert northern european place here) as early 1ad/1bc etc." With no background histroy on how they got there or WHERE they arrived from.  One is simply to take for granted that they popped out of thin air.

What is known with certainty is that they are indo-europeans and thus come from central Asia at some point. And they were not the first indo europeans (italics and dorians) but late indo-europeans arrival. They had no writing and most central asians did not but the archaeological evidence shows thet are from the steppes not european in origin.

Also in dealing the germanics they had no collective identity and arrived at seperate times in europe. some like the alani are straight from central asia with clearly traceable roots.

"ALANS, an ancient Iranian tribe of the northern (Scythian, Saka, Sarmatian, Massagete) group, known to classical writers from the first centuries A.D."

Any the proof enough is all the indo-europeans come from central asia otherwise I'd have to go through every single of the hundreds of tribe but I'll go through a few

"The Alans who were a group of Sarmatian tribes according to the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus "Nearly all the Alani are men of great stature and beauty, their hair is somewhat yellow, their eyes are frighteningly fierce"

The Sarmatians were indeed from central asia like the Alans(a subgroup of them). Who spread into east europe with a large series of tribes which basically filled up non-roman east europe and central asia and would go on to become the later "germanic tribes"

According to Pliny, Scythian rule once extended as far as Germany. Jordanes supports this hypothesis by telling us on the one hand that he was familiar with the Geography of Ptolemy, which includes the entire Balto-Slavic territory in Sarmatia, and on the other that this same region was Scythia. By "Sarmatia", Jordanes means only the Aryan territory. The Sarmatians were, therefore, a sub-group of the broader Scythian peoples.

Hence we know the Germanics were indeed Asians because they arouse  out of these Sarmatian and Scynthian tribes (related) of Asia.

Tacitus' De Origine et situ Germanorum
"All Germania is divided from Gaul, Raetia, and Pannonia by the Rhine and Danube rivers; from the Sarmatians and the Dacians by shared fear and mountains. The Ocean laps the rest, embracing wide bays and enormous stretches of islands. Just recently, we learned about certain tribes and kings, whom war brought to light."

"Eastern Romans continued to speak conventionally of "Scythians" to designate Germanic tribes and confederations or mounted Eurasian nomadic barbarians in general"
"The Germani are the West most branch of the Asian Scythian tribes..."
see Zosimus, Historia Nova, 1.23 & 1.28, also Zonaras, Epitome historiarum, book 12. Also the title "Scythika" of the lost work of the 3rd-century Greek historian Dexippus who narrated the Germanic invasions of his age

"The Sarmatians (including the Alans and finally the Ossetians) counted as Scythians in the broadest sense of the word – as speakers of Northeast Iranian languages,[55] and are considered mostly of Indo-Iranian descent"

Iranian like their buddies the alani, central asians
Bernard S. Bachrach, A History of the Alans in the West, from their first appearance in the sources of classical antiquity through the early Middle Ages, University of Minnesota Press, 1973 ISBN 0-8166-0678-1

The Carolingian kings of the Franks traced Merovingian ancestry to the Germanic tribe of the Sicambri(another germanic tribee). Gregory of Tours documents in his History of the Franks that when Clovis was baptised, he was referred to as a Sicamber with the words "Mitis depone colla, Sicamber, adora quod incendisti, incendi quod adorasti."'. The Chronicle of Fredegar in turn reveals that the Franks believed the Sicambri to be a tribe of Scythian or Cimmerian descent, who had changed their name to Franks in honour of their chieftain Franco in 11 BC.

"Based on such accounts of Scythian founders of certain Germanic as well as Celtic tribes, British historiography in the British Empire period such as Sharon Turner in his History of the Anglo-Saxons, made them the ancestors of the Anglo-Saxons."

In otherwords you can see there is a clear pattern of germanic tribes indivudally showing up as Scynthians and Sarmatians (cimmerians)

" Indo-European peoples migrated out of Central Asia in the third millennium BC... Their language broke down into dialects that can be divided into twelve branches, ten of which contain surviving languages...Germanic

"The ancient Greeks considered the Goths to be Scythians.
Jordanes: History of the Goths & History of the Goths: Hunter

"Both Tacitus and Jordanes placed the origin of the Goths in Asia according to Klinger. This is supported by observations and texts in the Nordic. The ancient Scandinavian Goths are not the ones that brought the Gothic script to the Nordic areas, this script was introduced during the Medieval with the Christians.

Samuel Klinger (1952): “The Goths in England: A Study in Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century Thought”

Thomas Myers travelled in the Nordic countries and after that wrote the book “Modern geography: Sweden and Norway” (1822). He wrote that the Goths, who originally sprung from the regions east of the Caspian Sea, are a more noble race than their northern neighbours.


"In the 1830-1850s, researchers thought that the Indo-Europeans had come from Central Asia, then considered the “forge of peoples”. This concept relied on historical data about regular waves of migration by the Sarmatians and Turkic-Mongolian tribes of Huns, Bulgars, Avars, Khazars, Pechenegs, Cumans, Tatars, Kalmyks and others from Central Asian steppes to Europe over the last two millennia. The Russian and English colonization of Central Asia that began at that point further fuelled European interest in Central Asia."
Ukraine One People's history Sturu P. 234

Then when white eurocentricks decided to steal black history they decided to make a phony theory about africans turning white in hot nations of europe like greece and italy and spain.

"For Herodotus, the Scythians were outlandish barbarians living north of the Black Sea in what are now Moldova and Ukraine."
—Michael Kulikowski, Rome's Gothic Wars from the Third Century to Alaric, pg. 14

"Yet one more nation entered Sarmatia from the West, the nation which brought about the fall if not the absolute annihilation of the Greek colonies on the mainland.  The Goths, appear in the Steppes early in the third century A.D. and by 238 ad already receive a stipend from the empire"

Scythians and Greeks : a survey of ancient history and archaeology on the north coast of the Euxine from the Danube to the Caucasus

Hence while it is true later in history the germanics moved into north east and north central europe they did it after coming from the west of sarmatia or from central asia

"The general view is that both agricultural and nomad Scythians were Iranian[central asians]. There can be no doubt that up to the coming of the Goths and later the Huns, the Euxine steppes were chiefly inhabited by an Iranian population...."
ibid 37

What is ironic about being asked to prove the Germanics are from central Asia is the the scandinavian people largely admit they are migrants and that the native non-white asiatic sami,laplanders and uralic asians lived in these north countries before they ever showed up. The white Germanic people are basically the last ones to enter Europe in the AD period which is why any discussion of them from eurocentrick encyclopedia's usually start with the Goths in 2 ad or 1 bc. Yet when you look you can find these countries being inhabited back from a much further date and no explanation is ever given for these two blatantly contradicting views. Original whites of North Europe, no history written before contact with the multiracial romans and greeks (although the original greeks and romans were black by the time the whites showed up in north europe it'd be more accurate to call them multiracial than just black). Show up out of nowhere as if it was the first place inhabited. But archaeological evidence shows first inhabitants were black, latter asiatic admixtures, and whites were the last ones to show up and they were central asian mixed. It is important to note that most of the modern day whites are offspring from germanic and slavs and have very little to do with the earliest groups of the ancient white dorians in greece and italics who were largely ethinically cleanse by the slavs and germanics or breed out of existence. This is why ancient europeans often carry genes not existent in modern europeans like la barna man and otzi.

Now lets take a look at what a source like britannica claims about germanics
"The origins of the Germanic peoples are obscure. During the late Bronze Age, they are believed to have inhabited southern Sweden, the Danish peninsula, and northern Germany between the Ems River on the west, the Oder River on the east, and the Harz Mountains on the south."

In otherwords, they don't know. And if they don't know, then it'd be dumb to argue they come from europe when there is no proof, which is why they don't know. They just can't accept that they are central asians because then they can't steal black history any more. And then they'd also have to stop looking down on the Iranians who they hate, but the Iranians might actually be closer to real white people than the white central asians aka so called Europeans.

"Recent genetic studies have concluded that humans arrived in the region 40,000 to 50,000 years ago, making the region one of the oldest known sites of human habitation. The archaeological evidence of population in this region is sparse, whereas evidence of human habitation in Africa and Australia prior to that of Central Asia is well-known. Some studies have also identified this region as the likeliest source of the populations who later inhabited Europe, Siberia, and North America."

 According to the Kurgan hypothesis, the northwest of the region is also considered to be the source of the root of the Indo-European languages."

"'Aryan' expansion
Dr Wells and his colleagues believe that their work also traces the expansion of the Indo-Iranian people known as the Kurgan civilisation, or more popularly Aryans.

Central Asia is revealed to be an important reservoir of genetic diversity, and the source of at least three waves of migration
Research paper
"We have a diagnostic Indo-Iranian marker," he said, referring to one of the Y-chromosome mutations.
This marker shows the progress of the 'Aryans' into India and beyond. These Indo-Iranians spoke a language which is believed to be the forerunner of many modern tongues.
Some people living high in the mountain valleys of Central Asia still speak a form of Sogdian - the oldest living Indo-Iranian tongue.
The study also shows how successful emigrants from Central Asia were able to spread their language further than their genes.
DNA samples from Iran show far fewer Indo-Iranian markers in the west of the country, despite an Indo-Iranian language being dominant across the region."

 The report on the genetic study of Central Asians

Long story short some objective scientist are dropping the lie left over from the age of scientific racism and white central asian-european supremacy that white people fell from the sky into northern Europe.

On the issue of slavs it is already largely and readily admitted they come from Asia as well, and they compromise the majority of non-westnern europe or East and central europe.

The Slavs were nomadic peoples from the Eurasian steppes, the grasslands stretching
from modern Hungary into central Asia. Between 400 and 600, Slavic communities
settled in Eastern Europe between the Baltic Sea and the Balkans. These communities
were multi-ethnic with each one linked by language and custom. From this initial
migration, the Slavs would eventually break into three main groups in Eastern Europe:
Polish Slavs in the north, Balkan Slavs in the south, and Russian Slavs in the east.
Before this occurred, however, Slavic communities fell under attack by another people
from the steppes: the Avars. Known for their horsemanship, the Avars conquered many
of the Slavs residing in Eastern Europe. Those Slavs who escaped conquest, either
through fleeing south or putting up successful resistance, collaborated with their would- be conquerors. Joint Slav and Avar forces marauded south of the Danube, settling in
modern Croatia and Serbia, and pressed in on Byzantine holdings. By 600, these
combined forces had taken many Byzantine lands from the Danube to Greece as the
Byzantines fled to safety elsewhere in the Empire."

"Prior to becoming known to the Roman world, Slavic-speaking tribes were part of the many multi-ethnic confederacies of Eurasia – such as the Sarmatian, Hun and Gothic empires."
Velentin Sedov: Slavs in Middle Ages
Now Recall that the Goths are already Germanics so when they speak the truth about the Slavs they have to admit the Germanics are asians too.

Florinsky describes the melting pot of the Steppes from the time of these previous historians onward:

"When the Greeks colonized the area north of the Black Sea about 700 B.C. they found Scythians with whom they traded. These Scythians disappeared and Sarmatians took their place; they were followed by Goths, and then in turn the Huns, Avars, Khazars, Magyars, Sclavs, and then Turks and Tatars from the seemingly inexhaustible spawning ground of humanity in Eastern Asia."*
Florinsky, Michael T.; Russia--A History and an Interpretation; MacMillan Co., New York, 1953, pg. 5.

Hence the modern white populations of Europe are truly central asians

Saturday, 22 February 2014

20 Proofs: Greeks African DNA

The cat is out the bag and it cannot be put back in.  Studies around the world are confirming that the Greeks indeed have Sub-saharan African DNA, only confirming the presence of an Ancient Black Greek Civilization as more than a dozen peer reviewed DNA studies confirm this:

 2001 Feb;57(2):118-27.

HLA genes in Macedonians and the sub-Saharan origin of the Greeks.

Author information

  • 1Department of Immunology and Molecular Biology, H. 12 de Octubre, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain.


HLA alleles have been determined in individuals from the Republic of Macedonia by DNA typing and sequencing. HLA-A, -B, -DR, -DQ allele frequencies and extended haplotypes have been for the first time determined and the results compared to those of other Mediterraneans, particularly with their neighbouring Greeks. Genetic distances, neighbor-joining dendrograms and correspondence analysis have been performed. The following conclusions have been reached: 1) Macedonians belong to the "older" Mediterranean substratum, like Iberians (including Basques), North Africans, Italians, French, Cretans, Jews, Lebanese, Turks (Anatolians), Armenians and Iranians, 2) Macedonians are not related with geographically close Greeks, who do not belong to the "older" Mediterranenan substratum, 3) Greeks are found to have a substantial relatedness to sub-Saharan (Ethiopian) people, which separate them from other Mediterranean groups. Both Greeks and Ethiopians share quasi-specific DRB1 alleles, such as *0305, *0307, *0411, *0413, *0416, *0417, *0420, *1110, *1112, *1304 and *1310. Genetic distances are closer between Greeks and Ethiopian/sub-Saharan groups than to any other Mediterranean group and finally Greeks cluster with Ethiopians/sub-Saharans in both neighbour joining dendrograms and correspondence analyses. The time period when these relationships might have occurred was ancient but uncertain and might be related to the displacement of Egyptian-Ethiopian people living in pharaonic Egypt.


HLA class I and class II polymorphism in a population from south-eastern Tunisia (Gabes Area).

Author information

  • 1National Blood Transfusion Center, Rue Djebel Lakhdhar-Bab Saadoun, Tunis, Tunisia.
  • Abstract

    The gene frequencies of HLA class I and class II alleles were investigated in 95 healthy Tunisian individuals from Gabes. Our aim was to compare the genetic relationship between Gabesians and Mediterraneans and sub-Sahara Africans using genetic distances, Neighbour-Joining dendrograms, correspondence and haplotypes analysis, thereby providing additional information about evolutionary history of modern-day Tunisians. Subjects were unrelated and of both genders, and HLA class I and class II genes were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSO) technique. Our data show that south-eastern Tunisians (Gabes area) are related to present-day North Africans (Algerians, Moroccans, Tunisians) and Iberians (Spaniards, Basques), and along with other North Africans, appear to be genetically related to Berbers, an indication that the Arab invasion (7th-11th centuries) of North Africa had minimal contribution on the HLA makeup of North Africans. On the other hand, Iberians including Spaniards and Basques show relatedness to (native Tunisian) Berbers, suggesting that the gene flow of 7th century AD invaders was also low in Iberians. In conclusion, the successive invasions of North Africa in general, and Tunisia in particular, did not modify markedly the genetic makeup of present-day Tunisians. With the exception of Greeks who have a sub-Saharan genetic profile, all Mediterranean populations depict a typical mediterranean substratum.

 2011 Mar;38(2):156-64. doi: 10.3109/03014460.2010.504195. Epub 2010 Jul 29.

HLA class I and class II polymorphisms in Tunisian Berbers.



The HLA polymorphism is a powerful genetic tool to study population origins. By analysing allele frequencies and haplotypes in different populations, it is possible to identify ethnic groups and establish the genetic relationships among them.


The Berber (endogenous Tunisians) HLA class I and class II genotypes were analysed and compared with those of Mediterranean and Sub-Saharan African communities using genetic distances, Neighbour-Joining dendrograms, correspondence and haplotype analysis.


One hundred and five unrelated Berbers were typed for HLA class I (A, B) and class II (DRB1, DQB1) gene alleles using reverse dot-blot hybridization.


High frequencies of A*0201 (24.76%), A*3402 (22.38%) and B*44 (32.85%) alleles were recorded for Berbers, the highest recorded for Mediterranean and North African populations. This study shows a close relatedness of Tunisian Berbers to other Tunisians, North Africans and Iberians.


The apparent relatedness of Tunisian Berbers to present-day (North African) Tunisians, Algerians and Moroccans suggests that the Arab invasion of North Africa (7(th)-11(th) centuries AD) did not significantly impact the genetic makeup of North Africans. Furthermore, Tunisian Berbers appear to be closely related to Iberians (Spaniards and Basques), indicating that the 7(th) century AD gene flow of invaders was low in Iberians and that the main part of their genetic pool came after the Northward Saharan migration, when hyper-arid conditions were established in Sahara (before 6000 BC). Other studied populations belong to the old Mediterranean substratum, which has been present in the area since pre-Neolithic times. This study indicates a higher proportion of Iberian than Arab ancestry in Tunisian Berbers, which is of value in evaluating the evolutionary history of present-day Tunisians. Greeks seem to share genetic HLA features (Chr 6) with Sub-Saharans. The relatedness of Greeks to Sub-Saharans has been confirmed by other studies based on chromosome 7 genetic markers.


Population genetic relationships between Mediterranean populations determined by HLA allele distribution and a historic perspective.


HLA genes allele distribution has been studied in Mediterranean and sub-Saharan populations. Their relatedness has been tested by genetic distances, neighbour-joining dendrograms and correspondence analyses. The population genetic relationships have been compared with the history of the classical populations living in the area. A revision of the historic postulates would have to be undertaken, particularly in the cases when genetics and history are overtly discordant. HLA genomics shows that: 1) Greeks share an important part of their genetic pool with sub-Saharan Africans (Ethiopians and west Africans) also supported by Chr 7 Markers. The gene flow from Black Africa to Greece may have occurred in Pharaonic times or when Saharan people emigrated after the present hyperarid conditions were established (5000 years B.C.). 2) Turks (Anatolians) do not significantly differ from other Mediterraneans, indicating that while the Asians Turks carried out an invasion with cultural significance (language), it is not genetically detectable. 3) Kurds and Armenians are genetically very close to Turks and other Middle East populations. 4) There is no HLA genetic trace of the so called Aryan invasion, which has only been defined on doubtful linguistic bases. 5) Iberians, including Basques, are related to north-African Berbers. 6) Present-day Algerian and Moroccan urban and country people show an indistinguishable Berber HLA profile.


HLA genes in Southern Tunisians (Ghannouch area) and their Relationship with other Mediterraneans

  • A. Hajjeja
  • S. HmidaaCorresponding author contact informationE-mail the corresponding author
  • H. Kaabia
  • A. Dridia
  • A. Jridia
  • A. El Gaaledb
  • K. Boukefa
  • Abstract

    South Tunisian HLA gene profile has studied for the first time. HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 and -DQB1 allele frequencies of Ghannouch have been compared with those of neighboring populations, other Mediterraneans and Sub-Saharans. Their relatedness has been tested by genetic distances, Neighbor-Joining dendrograms and correspondence analyses. Our HLA data show that both southern from Ghannouch and northern Tunisians are of a Berber substratum in spite of the successive incursions (particularly, the 7th–8th century A.D. Arab invasion) occurred in Tunisia. It is also the case of other North Africans and Iberians. This present study confirms the relatedness of Greeks to Sub-Saharan populations. This suggests that there was an admixture between the Greeks and Sub-Saharans probably during Pharaonic period or after natural catastrophes (dryness) occurred in Sahara.


 2008 Jun;12(2):299-304. doi: 10.1089/gte.2007.0120.

VNTR polymorphism of the DRD4 locus in different Pakistani ethnic groups.

The present study was designed to investigate the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) allelic distribution in different Pakistani ethnic groups. DNA samples from nine different ethnic groups of Pakistan were analyzed. Greek and Somali samples were included as representatives of the European and African populations, respectively. Pakistani, Greek, and Somali populations were also compared to the published data on different world populations. The allelic distribution revealed that the four-repeat allele was the most common allele in all the Pakistani ethnic groups as is in different other world populations, followed by the seven- and two-repeat alleles. To study the evolutionary relationship of the Pakistani ethnic groups among themselves and with a few other world populations, multidimensional scaling based on the allelic frequencies of the DRD4 VNTR was obtained. This analysis grouped most of the Pakistani ethnic groups together and closer to the European and Middle Eastern populations, except for the Mohanna from Sindh, who grouped with the African populations. In addition, the Somali and the Greek samples analyzed in this study grouped closer to the previous data obtained on the African and European populations, respectively.

 2001 Sep;62(9):1051-61.

The correlation between languages and genes: the Usko-Mediterranean peoples.


The usko-Mediterraneans peoples are defined as ancient and present day populations that have lived in the Mediterranean/Middle-East/Caucasus area and have spoken a Basque related language. The present day existing populations show an HLA genetic relatedness which is more or less close according to geographical distance. The Greek sample is an outlying in all genetic analyses, because Greeks have a significant genetic input from sub-Saharan Ethiopians and Blacks. This probably occurred in Pharaonic times. Present day comparisons between genes and languages show a lack of correlation: Macedonian, Palestinians, Kurds, part of Berbers, Armenians, and Turks belong to the old Mediterranean substratum, but they do not speak a language included in the old Mediterranean Dene-Caucasian group. This is due to an "elite"-imposed culture and language. Other ethnic groups speak an "old Mediterranean language" or "usko-Mediterranean language" modified by Roman Latin (i.e., Spanish, Italians), or by other not fully explained processes (Jews). 

"The expansion time for the E1b1b1a2 (V13) subclade in Greece is estimated around 4-9kya, somewhat preceding the estimate for the origin of this subclade, which is due to the use of different mutation rate models.  The estimate for expansion on Crete is 3kya, which coincides with an influx of Mycenaean culture from the Greek mainland during the end of the Bronze Age.  The E1b1b1a2 (V13) most closely follows the route proposed for Y-chromosome haplogroup J-M12 that was part of the late Neolithic introduction of farming and agriculture to Europe and the advances of the ensuing Bronze Age."

E1b1b1a. M78

The Northeast Africa-based E1b1b1a subclade is defined by SNP M78.  Somalia, Sudan and Egypt are among the present day countries with very high frequencies (60-90%) of the E1b1b1a M78 subclade.  The STR data also support its origin in this area with a TMRCA estimated at 14-23 kya.  The frequency of this subclade drops dramatically in Sub-Saharan Africa.
The E1b1b1a (M78) subclade of Haplogroup E predominates in Europe wherever Haplogroup E is found.   Since this haplogroup is most frequent in East Africa, it is likely connected to Africa via the Middle East and the Levantine corridor through Egypt.  The exit from Africa is estimated within the Mesolithic era.  The route to Europe continued through Anatolia and used the Balkan Peninsula, e.g. Greece, in the expansion of this subclade to the West.  This movement appears to closely parallel (in place and time) those taken by Y-chromosome Haplogroup J.  Together, Haplogroup J and E are believed to have spread agricultural practices during the Neolithic Era to Europe from the Near and Middle East. 
Given the presence of E1b1b1a/M78 in North Africa, it is likely that the migration north also produced a western trek from Ethiopia or Sudan into this area.  There may have also been backflow of this haplogroup into Africa during the Neolithic, again bringing with it new agricultural techniques into Egypt.  
Note that M78 SNP is the second highest representative in the Balkans (~23%).  There is a moderate geographic structure in that the frequency of E1b1b1a/M78 is higher in the South (Greece, Macedonia, Albania, Serbia) than the North (Croatia, Bosnia).  Low to very low frequencies (<5%) are seen in Iran and Pakistan and these tend to the southern regions of these two countries.  A moderate frequency (6%) has been detected in the Atlantic island group of the Azores (Portugal).

So there you have it, they have Ethiopian ancestors, cluster with Ethiopians, have ethiopians dna to this day. Even the art looks far more like black people than it does like modern greeks


Frequency and distribution of Haplogroup E in Europe and portions of Asia and Africa:

Figure 9. A map illustrating the frequency and distribution of Haplogroup E in Europe and portions of Asia and Africa.  The portion of the pie charts colored in blue represent the fraction of Haplogroup E among Y-DNA in region.  While Africa displays the highest overall frequencies, the next highest frequencies are found around the Balkan Peninsula, including Greece and Crete.  The frequency of Haplogroup E drops precipitously to the North and East. 

Nigeria, west Africa appears the most logical origin of the sickle mutation in Greece evidence from beta S globin gene cluster polymorphisms (1991). It has been conclusively demonstrated that HbS in Greece is mostly haplotype #19 (the one that originated in Benin, Nigeria West Africa). See, Boussiou M, Loukopoulos D, Christakis J, Fessas P.; The origin of the sickle mutation in Greece; evidence from beta S globin gene cluster polymorphisms. Unit for Prenatal Diagnosis, Laikon Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Alas, updated research work has proven beyond doubt that the sickle cell genes proven to exist in southern Europe are exclusively Sickle cell gene Haplotype 19 or the Benin Sickle cell gene from Nigeria.
Y Haplogroup E-M78 and YAP In Black Africans and Greeks
Y Haplogroup E-M78 a derivative of E3B is a signature African gene as confirmed in research studies over the last few years. The high frequency of this haplogroup in Greece suggests the presence of a substantive African population in that region during prehistoric and historical time periods.
A recent paper has detected clades of haplogroups J and E3b that were likely not part of pre-historic migrations into Europe, but rather spread by later historical movements Greeks.
(Semino et al., Am J Hum Genet, 2004) E3b originates from East Africa while there is a high frequency of J-M267 in the East Coast of Africa as well as the Red sea coast of Arabia.
A recent sampling of the Greek population comprised 36 Peloponnesian samples, 5 of which were J-M172(xM12) and 17 of which were E-M78 (R.K., unpublished data).

In spite of the small Peloponnesian sample size, the high E-M78 frequency (47%) observed here is consistent with that (44%) independently found in the same region (Di Giacomo et al. 2003) for the YAP chromosomes harboring microsatellite haplotypes A. (Novelletto, personal communication) (Cruciani et al. 2004).
The study by by Di Giacomo et al. found the following African haplogroups in Greeks: Haplogroup A which is highly specific to West Africa, R1a, DE, and J2*(xDYS413= 18)J*(xJ2). R1* which probably gave rise to R1a is found in Northern Cameroon. DE is found principally among Nigerians and it is suspected that it originated from Nigeria.
High-resolution Y-chromosome haplotyping and particular microsatellite associations reveal … an East Africa homeland for E-M78.Origin. See Ornella Semino, Chiara Magri, et al “Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area”
HLA Genetic Relationship Between Ancient Greeks and Black Africans
HLA genes are reliable markers of past population movement and are still used in laboratories today to establish genetic inter-relationship amongst seemingly diverse peoples.
HLA genes in Macedonians and the sub-Saharan origin of the Greeks (2001) was a study conducted by Dr. Arniaz and other scholars in a top flying Spanish University. This study uses HLA genes to establish the African dimension of the roots of ancient Greece.
There is a false claim (by those with ideological investments in the topic) on the Internet that this  Arnaiz Greek study has been “retracted” or “refuted.” The study is perfectly valid. Sub-Saharan-specific and quasi-sub-Saharan-specific alleles were definitely detected in the Greek population at the DRB1 locus, and this is not open to question.
It would be useful to discuss the study that was retracted, and the reason why. It is the work titled: “The origin of Palestinians and their genetic relatedness with other Mediterranean populations” (which contained some cross-referenced Greek data in a neighbor-joining dendogram and a correspondence analysis) that was retracted. And it was retracted solely and strictly for political reasons, as this Observer article makes crystal clear:
(Keep in mind we are dealing with the study on the relatedness of Jews and Palestinians at the moment, which was retracted, and not the one on the Greek-Black African relatedness, which was not retracted and remains valid. The two must not be confused.)

“Hb S is common in some areas of the Mediterranean basin, including regions of Italy, Greece, Albania and Turkey (Boletini et al., 1994) (Schiliro et al., 1990). Haplotype analysis shows that the Hb S in these areas originated in Africa. The genes probably moved along ancient trading routes between wealthy kingdoms in western Africa and the trade centers in the Mediterranean basin.” (Harvard University,
“Usually, people with sickle cell disease outside Africa (e.g., blacks in the United States) or India have mixed haplotypes for their sickle cell genes.” (Harvard University,

16.The Spread of Malaria to Southern Europe in Antiquity: New Approaches to Old Problems BERT SALLARES, MA; PhD,* ABIGAIL BOUWMAN, MSc, PhD,* and CECILIA ANDERUNG, MSc*
"Haplotype analysis has demonstrated that the sickle-cell trait in Sicily, northern Greece, and western Arabia is in linkage disequilibrium with the Benin haplotype in western central Africa.62This constitutes direct evidence for gene flow linked to human migration from central Africa to Mediterranean Europe in historical times. The 
Failaka individual might have been a descendant of a 
Macedonian soldier from northern Greece with the 
Benin haplotype"

Y Chromosomal lineage E-M78 (sub clade of E3B) according to the AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS:
"In conclusion, high-resolution Y-chromosome haplotyping and particular microsatellite associations reveal regional population differentiations, an East Africa homeland for E-M78, and recent gene-flow episodes consistent with the Neolithic in Europe.In particular, the spatial distributions of J-M172*, J-M267, E-M78, and E-M123 indicate expansions from the Middle East toward Europe"

And of the "CLASSICAL" Greeks? Did they carry East African lineages?

Well lets look at what the AM Journal of Human Genetics said.

Geneticists wanted to test the hypothesis that Greeks colonized parts of Italy starting around 750 B.C.E. They decided that the best way is to test the populations in the relevant regions of Italy for "Greek signature lineages".

What are these lineages? J and E3B (E-M78)

""Southern Italy (Apulia and Calabria) contains sites of the early Neolithic period (Whitehouse 1968), but we know from history that these regions were subsequently colonized by the Greeks (Peloponnesians). To test the relative contribution of Greek colonists versus putative earlier Neolithic settlers, an admixture analysis (Bertorelle and Excoffier 1998) was performed, using E-M78 and J-M172(xM12) as signatures of Greek and Anatolian lineages, respectively.":

Semino et al. (2004) Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area. Am J Hum Genet

The next study deals with Ancient Greek admixture in populations of Pakistan because of Alexander the Great's conquest.

Now what lineage do they use to trace the admixture of ancient Greek soldiers in Pakistan? E3B (also known as E1b1b) which is ultimately of East African origin and coallesces in Europe with the Neolithic.

Three Pakistani populations residing in northern Pakistan, the Burusho, Kalash and Pathan claim descent from Greek soldiers associated with Alexander’s invasion of southwest Asia. Earlier studies have excluded a substantial Greek genetic input into these populations, but left open the question of a smaller contribution. We have now typed 89 binary polymorphisms and 16 multiallelic, short-tandem-repeat (STR) loci mapping to the male-specific portion of the human Y chromosome in 952 males, including 77 Greeks in order to re-investigate this question. In pairwise comparisons between the Greeks and the three Pakistani populations using genetic distance measures sensitive to recent events, the lowest distances were observed between the Greeks and the Pathans.Clade E3b1 lineages, which were frequent in the Greeks but not in Pakistan, were nevertheless observed in two Pathan individuals, one of whom shared a 16 Y-STR haplotype with the Greeks. The worldwide distribution of a shortened (9 Y-STR) version of this haplotype, determined from database information, was concentrated in Macedonia and Greece, suggesting an origin there. Although based on only a few unrelated descendants this provides strong evidence for a European origin for a small proportion of the Pathan Y chromosomes.

Firasat et al. (2006) Y-chromosomal evidence for a limited Greek contribution to the Pathan population of Pakistan. Eur J Hum Genet.

BENIN HBS SICKLE CELL - originates in Benin West Africa and was carried by Neolithic and ancient Greeks.

This migration finds some support in the presence in Mediterranean populations (Sicily, Greece, southern Turkey, etc.; Patrinos et al. 2001; Schiliro et al. 1990) of the Benin sickle cell
haplotype. This haplotype originated in West Africa and is probably associated
with the spread of malaria to southern Europe through an eastern Mediterranean
route (Salares et al. 2004) following the expansion of both human and mosquito
populations brought about by the advent of the Neolithic transition
Cranial Discrete Traits in a Byzantine Population and Eastern Mediterranean Population Movements
Human Biology , Oct 2008 by Ricaut, F X, Waelkens, M

Osteological evidence of Benin Sickle Cell in ancient Greeks, including "Royal graves"

"Throughout this whole area...a manifestation of disease, once called 'osteoporosis symmetrica' occurs in ancient skeletons. It is a porotic hyperostosis of the skulls and other bones.... In the Mediterranean, porotic hyperostosis probably represents thalassemia or sicklemia...."
 "But a steady decrease in thalassemia from first farmers to the 4th c. BC would fit the probabilities expected from increasingly efficient use of farmland and swamp-drainage.... The subsequent rather quick increase would fit the evidence amassed by Jones (1907, 1909) and Stephanos (1884), and their successors, showing that malaria became endemic and then fluctuated somewhat in severity down to modern times."
"From this standpoint it is important to note that in Greece all the adult frequencies of hyperostosis change thus: Mesolithic 40%, Early Neolithic 60%, Late Neolithic-Early Bronze Age 28%, Middle Bronze 13%, Royal Graves 8%, Late Bronze 8%, Early Iron 4%, Hellenistic 10%, Roman 24%, Medieval 12%, Turkish 45%, Romantic 37%."

Angel, J. Lawrence. The People of Lerna: Analysis of a Prehistoric Aegean Population. American School of Classical Studies, Athens, 1971

"We conclude that the beta S gene was introduced to Sicily from North Africa and that the gene flow originated in Central West Africa and traveled north through historically well-defined trans-Saharan commercial routes.
Ragusa et al. (1988) Beta S Gene in Sicily Is in Linkage Disequilibrium with the Benin Haplotype: Implications for Gene Flow. Am J Hematol; 27:139-141

"The consensus is that the gene was introduced into Sicily and Southern Italy from Northern Africa through the trans-Saharan trade routes, or, alternatively, by means of the Greek colonisation...."
Russo-Mancuso et al. (1998) Survey of Sickle Cell Disease in Italy. Haematologica; 83:875-881

As for why this E lineage is relevent, it is because it is the y-dna, male side, so your father father father and this is a haplogroup coming from east africa. So when Greeks are showing between 25-50% E1 dna it means their patrilineal lines are african male regardless of how they look, all of this supports the fact of a black founder population as the founders will usually be male.

Recently, it has been proposed that E3b originated in sub-Saharan Africa and expanded into the Near East and northern Africa at the end of the Pleistocene (Underhill et al. 2001). E3b lineages would have then been introduced from the Near East into southern Europe by immigrant farmers, during the Neolithic expansion (Hammer et al. 1998; Semino et al. 2000; Underhill et al. 2001).

Cruciani et al. Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out Of Africa. Am J Hum Genet. 2004 May; 74(5): 1014–1022

This is relevent because it demonstrates who we are really talking about when we are talking about "middle eastern" migrants into europe. Black people


Reconstructing ancient mitochondrial DNA links between Africa and Europe.


Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages of macro-haplogroup L (excluding the derived L3 branches M and N) represent the majority of the typical sub-Saharan mtDNA variability. In Europe, these mtDNAs account for <1% of the total but, when analyzed at the level of control region, they show no signals of having evolved within the European continent, an observation that is compatible with a recent arrival from the African continent. To further evaluate this issue, we analyzed 69 mitochondrial genomes belonging to various L sublineages from a wide range of European populations. Phylogeographic analyses showed that ~65% of the European L lineages most likely arrived in rather recent historical times, including the Romanization period, the Arab conquest of the Iberian Peninsula and Sicily, and during the period of the Atlantic slave trade. However, the 
remaining 35% of L mtDNAs form European-specific 

subclades, revealing that there was gene flow from sub-

Saharan Africa toward Europe as early as 11,000 yr ago.

" The E-M35* lineage shows its highest frequency (19.2%) in the Ethiopian Oromo but with a wider distribution range than E-P2*. Indeed, it is also found at high frequency (16.7%) in the Khoisan of South Africa (Underhill et al. ; Cruciani et al. ) (suggesting, once again, their ancient relationship with Ethiopians) and observed in southern Europe (present study). "
"In Europe, this clade is restricted to the southernmost regions, such as Iberia and Sicily, and the absence of microsatellite variation suggests a very recent arrival from North Africa, consistent with previous observations (Bosch et al. ). The frequency pattern and the microsatellite network of E-M2(xM191) (fig. 3) indicate a West African origin followed by expansion, a result that is in agreement with the findings of Cruciani et al. ()."

Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area
 Ornella Semino,1 Chiara Magri,1 Giorgia Benuzzi,1 Alice A. Lin,2 Nadia Al-Zahery,1,4 Vincenza Battaglia,1 Liliana Maccioni,5 Costas Triantaphyllidis,6 Peidong Shen,7 Peter J. Oefner,7 Lev A. Zhivotovsky,8 Roy King,3 Antonio Torroni,1 L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza,2 Peter A. Underhill,2 and A. Silvana Santachiara-Benerecetti1

So there you have it, undeniable evidence from peer reviewed research involving over 100 professors who all agree that there we're migrations from black Africa into black Europe during the ancient period. 

Winters (1983b) makes it clear that the Garamantes founded the Greek cities of Thrace, Minoan Crete and Attica. The Garamantes were also called Carians by the Indo-European Greeks.

The Garamantes or Carians originally lived in the Fezzan. These Garamante were described by the Latin classical writers as black or dark skinned: perusti (Lucan 4.679), furvi (Arnoloius, Adversus Nationes , 6.5) and nigri (Anthologia Latina, 155,no.183).

Although these people of the Heroic age came from diverse origins, the Aryan-Greeks called them Pelasgians. According to the Greeks, the first man was Pelasgus--ancestor of the Pelasgians. The Pelasgians were a combination of different Black tribes called Achaeans, Cadmeans, Leleges, Carians or Garamantes.

The term Pelasgian was applied to all these pre-Hellenic inhabitants of Greece. R.J. Hopper, in The Early Greeks, noted that "indeed the classical Greeks believed in the separate existence of diverse ethnic elements side by side, and thought particularly of the Pelasgians in this connection".

According to tradition, the Pelasgians inhabited Arcadia and many Aegean Islands. These Blacks took their own writing to Greece which was later used by the Aryan-Greeks. According to Herodotus quadrigas or four-horse chariots were introduced to Greeks by the Libyans .

The Aryan-Greeks adopted the language of the Pelasgians and Egyptians. The linguistic evidence shows that there was a differentiation of Greece into East Greek and West Greek. The Black Greeks spoke East Greek (Achaioi or Achaean). West Greek was spoken by the Dorian or Aryan Greeks. The earliest Aryan tribe called Ionians spoke a dialect of East Greek called Aeolic.

Many classical scholars teach the world that the Greek language is entirely Indo-European. This view of Greek is wrong.

Dr. Anna Morpurgo Davies, has made it clear that "less than 40% of the words which have an Indo-European etymology". According to Dr. Davies, 52.2 % of the Greek terms in Chantraine's Dictionnaire Etymologique de la langue Grecque (1968) have an unknown etymology. The mixed nature of the Greek language results from the early settlement of the Aegean by Blacks from Africa.

Some of these words are of African origin. Robert K.G. Temple, in The Sirius Mystery, shows that many of the most common words of the Greek vocabulary are of Egyptian origin. Diop (1991) has also discussed the Egyptian origin for many Greek terms.


Some of the first African colonists to arrive in Greece came from Crete. These Cretans were called Garamantes. After the goddess Ker or Car, these people also came to be also known as the Carians. The Carians spoke a Mande languages.

A Pelasgian boat from Thera

These people usually sailed to the Islands in Aegean and the surrounding coast were they established prosperous trading communities.

There is frequent mention of the Garamantes of the Fezzan, in Classical literature of Greece and Rome. The Garamantes were recognized as a Black tribe. They were known to the Greeks and Romans as dark skinned. In Ptolemy (I.8.5.,p.31) a Garamante slave was described as having a body the color of pitch or wholly black.

Graves (1980) and Leo Frobenius linked the Garamante to the ancient empire of Ghana (c.300 BC to A.D. 1100). Graves (1980) claims that the term Garamante is the Greek plural for Garama or Garamas. He said that the present Jarama or Jarma are the descendants of the Garamante; and that the Jarama live near the Niger river.

The Olympian creation myth, as recorded by Pindar in Fragment , and Apollonius Rhodius, makes it clear that the Garamantes early colonized Greece. Their descendants were called Carians. The Carians practiced apiculture. As in Africa the Carians practiced matrilineal descent. According to Herodotus , even up until his time the Carians took the name of their mother.

The classical Carians and Egyptians were very close. Having originated in the Fertile African Crescent they had similar gods and cultural traditions dating back to the Proto-Saharan period.

The Garamantes founded Attica, where they worked the mines at Laureium. Demeter, the goddess of agriculture and fruitfulness, came from the Fezzan (Libya) by way of Crete. It was Demeter who took poppy seeds and figs to Europe.

Apollonius Rhodius (.iv.1310) tells us that the goddess Athene was born beside Lake Triton in Libya. The goddess Athene, was called Neith by the Egyptians and Nia by the Cretans in Linear A writing. This shows that the Garamantes took this god to Europe in addition to Demeter and Amon (=Ammon ,Amma).

By 3000 BC, the Garamantes has spread their influence to Thrace and early Hellenic Greece. Hesiod, who was a Kadmean (i.e., of Egyptian descent), in Works and Days , said that before the Hellenic invasion the Grecian people lived in peace and tranquility and had matriarchal societies. The name Europe comes from Aerope, the daughter of King Catreus, a Cretan. Thucydides observed that:


The Greeks often called the first inhabitants of Greece Pelasgians. The Greek writers claimed that Pelasgus, the great ancestor of the Pelasgians was the first man. The Pelasgians were a combination of diverse Black tribes which included the Achaeans , Kadmeans, and Leleges. The Garamantes were also often called Pelasgians by some classical writers. Strabo said "that the Pelasgi, as indeed the most ancient nation, were diffused through all Greece, and especially among the Aeolians".

The city of Argo was founded by Phoroneus, the father of Pelasgus, Iasus and Agenor. It was these folks who divided the Peloponnese between them.

Herodotus referred to the Pelasgians as "venerable ancestors". He said that the first Athenians "they were Pelasgi, the later possessing the country now designed Hellas". The Pelasgian founding of Athens is also noted by Plutarch in Theseus 12, and Ovid in Metamorphosis vii.402ff. According to Herodotus vii.91, the Pelasgians also founded Thebes in Europe. Pausanias, noted that "The Arcadians make mention of Pelasgus as the first person who existed in their country. From this king the whole region took the name Pilasgia". Hopper noted that the Pelasgians founded Attica.

The Black immigrants from Canaan were also settled in the Aegean at Argolis. They called themselves the "Sons of Abas". Many of the Melampodes later took part of Argolis away from the Canaanites.

The earliest Greek alphabet was made by the Pelasgians, it was lost and later reintroduced by Kadmus to Boeotia. Another Pelasgian, Evander of Arcadia introduced writing to the Italians. This script was used to make the first fifteen characters of the Latin script according to Pliny and Plutarch

But regarding the Grecian cities and Islands, these Pelasgians happen to be Black. There Ethnicity and Language (if you can call it that) was "Garamante" a Malinke speaking people.
Using archaeological evidence and the classical literature C.A. Winters (1983b) explained how the African/Black founders of Grecian civilization originally came from the ancient Sahara. Winters(1983b) makes it clear that these Blacks came to the Aegean in two waves 1) the Garamantes a Malinke speaking people that now live along the Niger river, but formerly lived in the Fezzan region of Libya;
These Garamante were described by the Latin classical writers as black or dark skinned: perusti (Lucan 4.679), furvi (Arnoloius, Adversus Nationes , 6.5) and nigri (Anthologia Latina, 155,no.183).
The Garamantes were also often called Pelasgians by some classical writers. Strabo said "that the Pelasgi, as indeed the most ancient nation, were diffused through all Greece, and especially among the Aeolians".
Winters (1983b) makes it clear that the Garamantes founded the Greek cities of Thrace, Minoan Crete and Attica. The Garamantes were also called Carians by the Indo-European Greeks.
According to the Greeks, the first man was Pelasgus--ancestor of the Pelasgians.
Again Pelasgians meaning "Pre- Hellenic" or "Original inhabitants" and in this case, the Authors are only talking about Arcadia and many Aegean Islands
The Pelasgians were a combination of different Black tribes called Achaeans, Cadmeans, Leleges, Carians or Garamantes.
The Pelasgians founded many cities. The Pelasgian founding of Athens is noted by Plutarch in Theseus 12, and Ovid in Metamorphosis vii, 402 ff. According to Herodotus vii.91, the Pelasgians also founded Thebes. Many of these Athenians may have introduced the Geometric style to Greece during the so-called Dark Ages (1200- 600 BC).
As recorded by Pindar in Fragment , and Apollonius Rhodius, makes it clear that the Garamantes early colonized Greece. Their descendants were called Carians. The Carians practiced apiculture. As in Africa the Carians practiced matrilineal descent. According to Herodotus , even up until his time the Carians took the name of their mother.

The Spread of Malaria to Southern Europe in Antiquity: New Approaches to Old Problems